A large electric current acts directly on the fabric.

A large electric current acts directly on the fabric.

When substantiating the maximum permissible concentrations of chemicals, their safety is taken into account not only for current but also for future generations.

The maximum permissible concentrations for all chemicals used to protect agricultural plants from pests and diseases have been set, and the maximum permissible levels for various types of vibration and noise generated by agricultural machinery have been determined. Observance of these hygienic standards should be monitored not only by the state sanitary supervision bodies (sanitary-epidemiological stations), but also by the owner of the agricultural enterprise.

Strict adherence to the maximum permissible concentrations of chemicals in the air of the work area and the levels of noise and vibration, other harmful factors can prevent the occurrence of occupational diseases among agricultural workers.

The harmful effect of production factors on the human body is exacerbated by combining them with the so-called concomitant adverse working and living conditions, which are understood as the whole set of negative socio-economic conditions. These include, first of all, bad habits – alcohol consumption, smoking, improper organization of recreation, poor nutrition and more.

Irrational malnutrition (eating disorders, diet, monotony of food, insufficient intake of vitamins), weakening the body’s defenses, reduces its resistance to harmful occupational factors. This should be especially remembered by those who are often in the field all day (tractor drivers, farmers, etc.). These workers should be regularly provided with hot meals, directly at the workplace. They should avoid eating dry food.

Wash your hands and rinse your mouth before eating (especially when working with pesticides) to prevent harmful substances from entering the digestive tract.

An important role in the prevention of occupational diseases is played by the proper organization of rest of workers during and after work, including on weekends.

Often the emergence of an occupational disease is facilitated by individual sensitivity of the organism, ie human sensitivity to the action of certain environmental factors. The concept of individual sensitivity of the organism includes, on the one hand – its allergic reactions, and on the other – the general biological response to the action of certain factors.

Weaken the body of the disease, malnutrition, alcohol abuse, disorders of work and rest. For example, people with organic diseases of the central nervous system, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer should not be allowed to work with pesticides. The profession of tractor driver is not recommended for people with sciatica or musculoskeletal disorders.

The consequences of the effects of alcohol on the human body are well known – they are severe chronic diseases, disability, premature old age and the birth of defective children.

It is now well established that any dose of alcohol is harmful to the nervous system and other vital human organs, but they are especially dangerous for people who work in conditions of adverse factors.

The impact of noise, vibration, pesticides, mineral fertilizers on the human body in the case of alcohol consumption is sharply increased, often leading to irreversible changes in health. Like alcohol, chemicals act on internal organs, especially the liver, causing chronic diseases (hepatitis, cholecystitis, angiocholitis).

Under the influence of alcohol, the absorption of harmful chemicals in the digestive tract is accelerated. In this case, the action of one substance is sharply enhanced by the action of another (potential effect). That is why people who often drink alcohol, occupational diseases develop faster and their course is more severe, and in the case of acute poisoning may even die.

The impact of alcohol on drivers of cars, tractors, combine harvesters, operators of other agricultural machines should be considered separately (it is not only about the harmfulness of alcohol to health, but also to work.) A person drunk while driving becomes extremely dangerous to others.

It is known that the mandatory requirement for drivers is the ability to concentrate and quickly switch attention, speed of reaction, normal coordination and accuracy of movements. Under the influence of alcohol, all these qualities are sharply reduced, and with the systematic use of alcohol are generally lost. It is no coincidence that most accidents are caused by drunk drivers.

It is necessary to know that at systematic drunkenness the person for some time is already capable to carry out usual professional duties, but is not capable to perceive new, badly remembers, loses interest in work.

09.08.2011


Electric shock: first aid. Abstract

Electric current under a number of adverse conditions can damage a living organism and cause its death

Phenomena arising from a collision with an electric current depend on a number of conditions, among which the main role is played by the properties of the electric current and the functional state of the organism itself.

The properties of electric current are determined by the nature of the current (direct or alternating), its voltage and frequency, direction, duration of action. DC acts faster than AC, but AC is more dangerous than DC at a relatively low voltage and low frequency, because the resistance of tissues to AC is weaker than DC. Increasing the frequency of periods reduces the harmful effects of current. High-frequency currents are not dangerous and are used for therapeutic purposes.

The strength of the current is expressed in relation to the voltage to the resistance exerted by the tissue. At the same voltage it is the more, the less resistance of fabrics. The harmful effects of current will be much greater when exposed to moist skin, while dry skin has greater resistance to electric current. The size of the surface of the fabric in contact with the electrodes plays a significant role in the resistance to electric current.

It is essential through which organs the current passes, which can be established by connecting the idea of ​​the place of entry and exit of current. Especially dangerous is the passage of current through the heart, brain, because it can cause cardiac arrest and respiration. In general, with any electric shock there is heart damage. In severe cases, a picture resembling a cardiac shock develops: frequent soft pulse, low HELL, the victim is pale, frightened, there is shortness of breath, seizures are often observed, respiratory arrest.

The degree of disturbances caused by electric current depends on the duration of the current. It is known that the current of even high voltage and high power is not lethal if it acts less than 0, 1seconds. Sensitivity to electric current is different in different species of animals and individuals of the same species. The functional state of the organism, its nervous system plays a significant role in this regard: the more excitable the nervous system, the sharper its reaction when a current is passed.

A large electric current acts directly on the fabric. Severe electric burns up to charring are observed in the places of current entry and exit (most often on the arms and legs). In milder cases, there are so-called current marks – rounded spots from 1 to 6 cm in diameter, dark inside and bluish on the periphery. Unlike thermal burns, hair is not burned.

The general effect of electric current on the body (depending on the strength) is manifested by headache, nausea, often increased heart rate and respiration, increased HELL and its subsequent fall, muscle paralysis, edema and hydrocephalus.

The action of a strong current (100ma and above) due to a violation of the nervous system initially causes an increase in HELL and shortness of breath. Then comes the inhibition of the CNS, accompanied by a significant decrease in HELL, weakening and even a temporary cessation of breathing, darkening of consciousness, sometimes its loss. This condition can manifest itself in the form "imaginary death"… With timely care, it is often possible to restore vital functions. Convulsions, respiratory paralysis, and complete cardiac arrest may occur with electric shock.

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Emergency aid. First of all, the victim is released from contact with electricity (if this has not been done before). Turn off the power supply, and if this is not possible, then reset the broken wire with a wooden dry stick.

If the caregiver is wearing rubber boots and gloves, you can distract the victim from the power line. At a respiratory carry out artificial respiration, enter cardiovascular and cardiovascular means (0.1% solution of adrenaline – 1 ml, cordinamine – 2 ml, 10% solution of caffeine – 1 ml subcutaneously), means stimulating breath (1% solution of lobeline – 1 mol intravenously or slowly intramuscularly).

A sterile bandage is applied to the electro-burn wound.

Artificial respiration is not stopped for a long time. At cardiac arrest – indirect heart massage, intracardiac injection of adrenaline and 10 ml of 10% calcium chloride solution.

Hospitalization. Transportation lying on a stretcher to the burn or surgical department.

09.08.2011


Rules of first aid. Abstract

Principles of first aid. First aid in case of accidents. Loss of consciousness (VS). Artificial respiration (AR). External heart massage. Shock. Faint. Concussion. Bleeding. Hypothermia. Freezing. Overheating. Thermal burns. Chemical burns. Electric shock

Principles of first aid. First aid is a set of simple, expedient actions aimed at preserving the health and life of the victim. First: if there is a need and opportunity, it is necessary to remove the victim from the scene. Second: inspect the damaged areas of the body, assess the condition of the victim, stop the bleeding and treat these areas. Then it is necessary to immobilize and prevent traumatic shock.

The following principles should be followed when providing first aid:

correctness and expediency; speed; thoughtfulness, determination, calm.

First aid in case of accidents: