485s. Finance of enterprises: Textbook / Head of the author.

485s. Finance of enterprises: Textbook / Head of the author.

The general index does not allow to single out the influence of sales (quantitative) and price (qualitative) factors on the final result – sales revenue.

The index method of analysis makes it possible to solve these problems by constructing aggregate indices. Aggregate indices are general indices in which, in order to eliminate the influence of individual elements (factors) on the index, other elements are fixed at a constant (basic or reporting) level. Forms of aggregate indices for the general index of sales:

I = åg1p1 / åg0 p0 have the following form:

a) aggregate index of the physical volume of sales:

Iop = åg1p0 / åg0 p0; (one)

b) aggregate price index for the products of the enterprise:

Ic = åg1p1 / åg1 p0; (2)

To construct the Iop and Its indices, the rule of constructing aggregate indices is used, which is substantiated in the general theory of statistics: qualitative (intensive) elements (factors) included in the formula are fixed at the level of the base period, quantitative elements – at the reporting level. The difference between the numerator and denominator of the aggregate index shows: what a separate effect on the overall result had a factor.

The application of the index method of detecting the influence of factors on the result is limited by the fact that it is quite convenient to analyze only two factors in multiplicative models of the type y = ab. The application of this method to establish the influence of factors in multifactor models is quite time consuming, so the method of chain substitutions is of more universal importance for factor analysis of economic phenomena. Using this method, if there is a functional model (multiplicative or additive) that describes the relationship of factors and the result indicator, you can determine the separate influence of each factor (their number does not matter) on the final indicator analyzed and check the results analysis by balancing factors.

The essence of the method of chain substitutions is a sequential, alternating replacement in the functional model, which describes the basic level of economic indicators, basic parameters for reporting, in calculating conditional performance indicators and comparing them to determine the influence of factors. In this case, first of all, quantitative parameters must be replaced, then – structural, and last but not least – qualitative.

If the formula contains several quantitative, structural or several qualitative indicators, the sequence of substitutions depends on the assessment of which of them are primary and which are derivatives, which are secondary. By alternately replacing the baseline indicators in the formula with the reported results can be compared with each other, the difference between each subsequent and previous indicator and will express the elimination of the influence of all factors other than the replaced.

If the multiplicative model describing the relationship of the analyzed indicator contains only two factors (type y = ab), then to determine the factors influencing the change in the indicator y in the dynamics (or in comparison with the business plan), use a simplified variant of the method of chain substitutions – the method of differences.

To determine the separate influence of each of the two factors on the resultant indicator, calculate the differences between the reported and basic factor parameters and multiply them by the absolute values ​​of another factor parameter, while the difference between actual and quantitative parameters is multiplied by the absolute value of the basic qualitative and basic qualitative parameters – the absolute value of the reported quantitative.

For example, the total number of employees of a manufacturing firm in 1998 and 1999 was 520 and 490 people, respectively, the average annual salary of one employee – respectively 2064 and 2548 UAH., The annual salary fund – 1073.2 and 1248.5 thousand UAH. It is necessary to determine how the factors of the number of employees and the average annual wage have affected the general wage fund of the enterprise.

To calculate the impact of these factors, it is advisable to build such an analytical table (Table 2.).

Table 2.






 +/ –

Average list number

employees, pers.




Average annual salary

one employee, UAH




Annual salary fund,

thousand UAH





a) the impact of the number factor (quantitative): -30 * 2064 = -61.9 thousand UAH.

b) the impact of the factor of average annual wages (quality):

+484 * 490 = + UAH 237.2 thousand,

Total: -61.9 + 237.2 = +175.3 thousand UAH.

Thus, the annual salary fund increased in 1999 compared to 1998. by 175.3 thousand UAH, including due to a decrease in the number of staff of the enterprise, it decreased by 61.9 thousand UAH, and due to an increase in average wages increased by 237.2 thousand UAH.

personal narratives topics 15.07.2011

Economics of enterprises: indicators of the state of working capital. Abstract

The abstract provides information on the indicators of the state of working capital

The state of working capital is characterized primarily by their availability on a certain date. The presence of own working capital of the enterprise is defined as the difference between the sum of the first section of the liabilities of the balance sheet F. 1 and line 530 and the result of the first section of the assets of the balance sheet F. 1 and line 300.

That is, from the amount of the first section of liabilities “Sources of own and equivalent funds” (row 495, column 4) and the amount of line 530 (long-term loans) is calculated the sum of indicators of the asset section ” Fixed assets and other non-current assets “(row 070, column 4) and borrowed funds (row 300).

According to the Regulation (standard) of accounting 2 (PB02) “Balance” approved by the order of the Ministry of Finance of Ukraine from 31.03. 99 # 87 and registered with the Ministry of Justice of Ukraine on 21.06. 99 No. 391/3684, the availability of own working capital of the enterprise is defined as the difference between the sum of the “section and liabilities of the balance sheet FI”. “Equity” (line 380) and the result of section I of the balance sheet asset (line 080).

Therefore, from the amount of section I of the balance sheet liability “Equity” (line 380) and the amount of line 430 “Ensuring subsequent costs and payments” is calculated the sum of the indicators of section I of the asset “Non-current assets “(line 080).

Comparing the actual availability of working capital with the standard allows you to determine the lack or excess of working capital.

Lack of own working capital means exceeding the ratio of working capital over their actual availability. It may arise through the fault of the enterprise itself, other enterprises, as a result of changes in business conditions, not taken into account in a timely manner (such as late financing of the growth of working capital ratio), due to natural disasters and other reasons.

The main reasons for the lack of working capital can be: poor performance of the marketing department; non-fulfillment of profit plans; weak responsibility of enterprises for the formation and preservation of their working capital and their misuse; untimely financing of the growth of the working capital ratio; the presence of receivables (late payments), etc.

Lack of working capital may occur due to a significant increase in prices as a result of inflation.

The surplus of own working capital is created in enterprises in case of exceeding the size of working capital in excess of their defined standards, necessary to meet the constant minimum needs of production in resources. It may arise as a result of overfulfillment of the profit plan; incomplete contribution of payments to the budget; gratuitous receipt (receipt) of inventory from other organizations; incomplete use of profits for the purposes provided for in the financial plan, etc.

Exceeding the working capital ratio may be justified in case of overfulfillment of the production plan, but the growth rate of regulatory stocks should not exceed the growth rate of production.

Under modern economic conditions (changes in prices, inflation, decline in production), the excess of the actual availability of working capital over the norm – a phenomenon in the economic activity of enterprises is quite rare.

Comparing the actual availability of working capital on a certain date of different periods, we can judge the absolute change in their values.

The indicators that characterize the state of working capital include the ratio of the real value of working capital in the property of the enterprise (Krv.). This indicator is defined as the ratio of the value of working capital to the value of the property of the enterprise:

where Fn – the actual availability (value of working capital, UAH.); M – the value of the property of the enterprise, UAH.

The ratio of the real value of working capital shows what share in the property of the enterprise they occupy. Depending on the type of production, type of product and other factors, this share may be different. But it is desirable that it provides the possibility of rhythmic, uninterrupted production and, if necessary, rapid liquidity of current assets. [four]


Tarasenko NV Economic analysis of industrial enterprise. – Lviv. LBI NBU, 2000. – 485p. Finance of enterprises: Textbook / Head of the author. Qty. And science. Ed. Prof. AM Podderogin 3rd ed., Revised. and ext. – K .: KNEU, 2000 .– 460p. Explanatory dictionary of economist, businessman, banker, manager, broker, insurer, auditor and accountant // Compiled by: TM Mezentseva and others. – Mn .: Belarusian Association of Accountants. 1997 .– 476p.


Wage organization: principles and components. Abstract

The organization of remuneration is one of the most important tools that determines the relationship between the measure of labor and the measure of its payment. The measure of labor is determined by its quantitative and qualitative aspects, and the measure of payment – the subsistence level as its starting point

In a market economy based on various forms of ownership and management, increasing the material interest of workers in effective work should be based on such conditions of wages that would maximize the increase in sales, goods and services, increase the level of technology, education and training, improvement organization of production and labor.

The organization of wage properties has certain principles:

Remuneration of an employee depending on his personal contribution, quantity and quality of labor expended.